Civil Air Transport
All non-military aviation, both private and commercial forms one of the major categories of flying – the civil air transport. Most of the countries across the world are members of the ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organization), and work together to institute common standards and suggested practices for civil air transportation.
Civil airline transport includes two chief categories: Scheduled air transport and General aviation. The scheduled air transport includes all passenger and cargo flights in service on regularly-scheduled routes, while the General aviation consists of all other civil flights, private or commercial. Although scheduled air transport is larger operation considering the passenger numbers, GA is comprises of larger number of flights. All scheduled civil air transportation is commercial, but general aviation can be either commercial or private. Usually, the pilot, aircraft, and operator must all be certified to execute commercial operations. There is separate commercial licensing, registration, and operation certificates. Read on to know more on civil aviation.
The commercial aviation consists of nearly all flying done for hire, particularly scheduled service on airlines. The private aviation on the other hand includes pilots flying for their own purposes without getting any kind of remuneration. There are five main manufacturers of civil air transport aircraft -
• Airbus, based in Europe
• Boeing, based in the United States
• Bombardier, based in Canada
• Embraer, based in Brazil
• United Aircraft Corporation, based in Russia
The Boeing, Airbus, Ilyushin and Tupolev focus on wide-body and narrow-body jet airliners, while Bombardier, Embraer and Sukhoi give more attention to regional airliners. Big networks of specialized parts suppliers from around the world support these manufacturers. These may sometimes provide only the preliminary design and the final assembly of the airliners takes place in their own plants for the civil air transport.
Until the recent times, most major airlines were sponsored by their governments and thus deeply protected from competition. But with the open skies agreements, there is an open choice for the consumers, resulting in increased competition. Coupled with falling prices for airlines along with high fuel prices, low fares, high salaries, have driven many older airlines to government-bailouts, bankruptcy or mergers. At the same time, low-cost carriers in civil air transport like Ryanair, Southwest and Westjet have thrived.